Sadia Munir has completed her PhD in 2008 from York University, Toronto, Canada. She completed her Post-doctoral studies from the Department of Kinesiology at York University. She is working as a Teacher, teaching nursing students at the University of Calgary in Qatar, Doha since 2012. Her research interests is in biomedical sciences focusing on epidemiology of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. She is taugt human anatomy and physiology and statistics for several years. She has mentored undergraduate and graduate students in their research. She is also a member of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. She has presented in several national and international conferences.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of the pregnancy and affects 15% of pregnant women worldwide. Prevalence of GDM has increased from 10-100% in several race/ethnic groups over the last 20 years, reflecting the underlying increase in type 2 diabetes. Five of the top 10 countries for diabetes prevalence in 2010 were in the Gulf region. There were 303,700 known cases of diabetes in Qatar in 2014 and the number is growing each year. Children of women with GDM have an increased risk of development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which include obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. GDM also increases the risk of development of neurologic dysfunction in offspring born to women with GDM in their childhood or adulthood. Children of women with GDM are more likely to be obese and diabetic in childhood and adulthood. GDM also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia, birth injuries, macrosomia and neonatal hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal cardiac dysfunction and stillbirth. The human placenta is located at the interface between mother and fetal blood circulation and has a central role both as a producer as well as a target of several molecules that are involved in placental development and function. We have investigated the role of cytokines and growth factors in the pathophysiology of placenta in the GDM. We have performed a Pubmed search with key words placenta, GDM, placental villi, vascularization, cytokines, growth factors, inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress and pathophysiology. We have investigated differences in the development and vascularization of placenta, their underlying causes and impact on feto-maternal health through literature review. We have also identified gaps in the literature and researched questions that need to be answered to completely understand the central role of placenta in the GDM. This study is important in understanding the pathophysiology of placenta due to changes in the location and expression of cytokines and growth factors in the placental cells of women suffering from GDM. It is necessary to understand these mechanisms in order to develop treatments to reverse the effects of cytokines and growth factors on placental malfunctioning, which in turn, will result in improved mother and child health.
Marina Polić-Vižintin completed her graduation from the School of Medicine, University of Zagreb in 1982 and PhD thesis defended in 2015, at the same School of Medicine. She passed a specialist exam in Social Medicine in 1989. She is currently working at Dr Andrija Štampar Teaching Institute of Public Health. She did her Post-graduate study in Gerontology and in Public Health. She is also a Senior Lecturer at the University of Applied Health Studies in Zagreb, subject Public Health. She participated in a number of research projects and took active part in many congresses and seminars in Croatia and abroad. She has published numerous professional and scientific papers in Croatian and international periodicals.
Rational drug utilization is an important segment of every national health policy. The aim was to determine distribution and trends in the outpatient utilization of generic versus brand name psychopharmaceuticals and to evaluate the rationality of prescribing psychopharmaceuticals during a ten-year period. Using the World Health Organization Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical classification/Defined Daily Doses (ATC/DDD) methodology, the number of DDD was calculated from data collected from all Zagreb pharmacies on the number and size of drug packages, during the 2001-2010 period. The ratio of generic and brand name drug costs served as an indicator on assessing the rationality of drug utilization. Total cost for psycho pharmaceuticals increased by 20.1%, more for brand name than for generic agents (32.7% vs. 7.4%). The highest share of generic psychopharmaceuticals as compared with brand name drugs according to DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000/day) was in the group of psycholeptics (83.6% in 2001 vs. 82.2% in 2010), most in hypnotics and sedatives, and least in antipsychotics. The share of generic psychopharmaceuticals in total drug utilization according to DDD/1000/day was decreased by 12%. The greatest decrease was in antidepressants, i.e., by 46% according to DDD/1000/day; and in antipsychotics by 30.9%. In the therapeutic subgroup of mood stabilizers, the share of generic drugs in total drug utilization declined by 32% according to DDD/1000/day. There is a potential to achieve some savings with generic psychopharmaceuticals. Combining the initiatives to lower the price of generics with demand-side measures to enhance their prescribing is important to maximize prescribing efficiency.